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Once you’ve had a chance to use the Tasks database, please let us know how we’re doing. Provide Feedback 0 Show Getting Started when this database is opened This Getting Started window is a form that provides two videos to help you understand how to use and modify your MyTasks database. Creating databases from templates 57 8 If you want, watch the videos to understand how this template works.

Then clear the Show Getting Started when this database is opened check box, and close the window. Then if any of the groups are collapsed, click their chevrons to open them.

All Arrpss Ohie TIP Below the form name is a toolbar that has commands created by embedded macros. A database that has commands like these is called a database application. The topic of macros is beyond the scope of this book. For information, search for macros in Access Help.

Notice that the task you just entered in the form is the first record in this table. Let’s use an application part to add a form to this new database. It is now easier to focus on just the seven forms in the database. On the Create tab, in the Templates group, click the Application Parts button to display the Application Parts gallery.

TIP These ready-made objects give you a jump start on creating a fully functional database application. But like templates, they involve behind the scenes functionality that you might not know how to manage yet. You can come back and explore appli- cation parts more fully when you have a better understanding of them.

Creating databases from templates 59 15 Point to each thumbnail in turn to display its description, and then in the Blank Forms area, click 1 Right. Notice that when you add this form to the database, Access adds an eighth form called SingleOneColumnRightLabels to the Forms group in the Navigation pane.

It also runs a macro that opens the Task List form. X Search. For each type of object, first filter the Navigation pane to display only that group, and then explore its objects.

Office plans that include SharePoint Small Business Premium and Enterprise are ready to host Access web apps with no extra setup required. To create an Access web app, you must first log in to Office with a SharePoint enabled account. This account might not be the same as your Windows account. Deployment, management, and security of the web app are all controlled within the SharePoint infrastructure. To create a web app: 1 Start Access, and in the upper-right corner of the program’s starting screen, verify that you are logged in to Office with a SharePoint-enabled account.

If the account shown is not a SharePoint-enabled account, click Switch account, and then click the account you want to use; or click Add Account and enter the appropriate credentials. TIP If you aren’t sure which template to choose, enter a keyword in the Search box at the top of the pane, and search online for suggestions. Then click Create to download the template and create the application on the designated SharePoint site. Service, Sell Jiz it!

CI ckan item in ttie result list and “tw”l be added c. From the initial web app screen, you can add or view existing objects. The tables you add to the web app are displayed as tiles in the Tile pane on the left side of the page. For each table, Access automatically creates an associated Datasheet form and a List form. Clicking a table shows you an image of the table’s form in the right pane.

To edit a table’s form, display the form in the view you want, and click the Edit button. You can manage the data source and actions of a form’s fields, in addition to the formatting of the form itself, in the List and Datasheet form views. To edit a table, right-click the table’s tile, and click Edit Table. You can also open the Navigation pane and edit the tables and forms from there.

The wizard guides you through the process of establishing the relationship. For in- formation about using this wizard, see “Allowing only values in lists” in Chapter 6, “Maintain data integrity. To make the Access web app available to other users, simply share the web address of the SharePoint site with them.

When they launch the web app in their web browser, they can view and manipulate its data by using the buttons on the Action bar located to the right of the Search box to add, delete, edit, save, and cancel record edits. Their changes are saved in the centrally stored SQL database.

TIP If you need to make more extensive changes to the database, you can click the Settings button in the upper-right corner of the web app and click Customize In Access to open the database in Access on your local computer. Creating databases from templates 63 Creating databases and tables manually Suppose you need to store different types of information for different types of people. For example, you might want to maintain information about employees, customers, and suppli- ers.

However, cramming all this information into one table would soon get messy. It’s better to create a new database based on the Blank Desktop Database template and then man- ually create separate tables for each type of contact: employee, customer, and supplier.

When you create a new blank database or insert a new table into an existing database, the table is displayed on a tabbed page in Datasheet view with one empty row that is ready to receive data. TIP When you create a new database, Access displays its name and a path to its storage location in the title bar.

For information about how to reduce the clutter caused by the path, see “Controlling which features are available” in Chapter 11, “Make databases user friendly.

If you close the table at this point, Access discards the table. The simplest way to make the table a permanent part of the database is to create at least one record by entering data. TIP When you enter data in a new table, Access assigns placeholder field names and cre- ates a basic table structure to hold the data. You can also define the structure of the table without entering data. For information about table structure, see “Refining table structure” later in this chapter.

For information about adding new blank fields to a table, see “Specify- ing the type of data” in Chapter 6, “Maintain data integrity. Creating databases and tables manually 65 Every table has an empty row that is ready to receive a new record, as indicated by the as- terisk icon in the record selector at the left end of the row.

By default, the first field in each new table is an ID field designed to contain an entry that will uniquely identify the record. Also by default, this field is designated as the table’s primary key. No two records in this table can have the same value in this primary key field. Behind the scenes, the data type of this field is set to AutoNumber, so Access will enter a sequential number in this field for you. TIP As you’ll discover in a later exercise, the primary key field does not have to be the default AutoNumber data type.

If you need to you create your own primary key field, anything meaningful and unique will work. For information about data types, see “Refining table structure” later in this chapter. The first field you need to be concerned about is the active field labeled Click To Add. You enter the first item of information for the new record in this field, and then press the Tab or Enter key to move to the first cell in the field to the right.

Access then assigns the value 1 to the ID field, assigns the name Fieldl to the second field, and moves the Click To Add label to the third field. The icon in the record selector at the left end of the record changes to two dots and a pencil to indicate that this record has not yet been saved, and the New icon moves to the record selector of the next row.

When creating a new table in Datasheet view, you need to save the first record after enter- ing the first item of data. If you don’t, Access increments the ID value for each field you add to that record.

For example, if you add seven fields, Access assigns the value 7 to the ID field of the first record. To avoid this problem, you simply click the icon in the record selector after you enter your first value in the first record. This saves the record with the value 1 assigned to the ID field, and subsequent records will be numbered sequentially. Having entered the first item of data and saved the record, you continue entering items of information in consecutive fields and pressing Tab or Enter.

When you finish entering the last item for the first record, you click anywhere in the row below it to tell Access that the record is complete. After you complete the first record of a new table, you might want to change the default field names to something more meaningful.

To rename a field, you simply double-click its field name and then enter the name you want. At any time while you are entering data in a new table, you can save the table by click- ing the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar and naming the table. If you try to close the table without explicitly saving it, Access prompts you to save the table.

If you click No, Access discards the table and any data you have entered. After you have saved the table for the first time, Access automatically saves each record when you move away from it. You don’t have to worry about losing your changes, but you do have to remember that most data entries can be undone only by editing the record.

Databases almost always contain more than one table. You can create additional empty tables by clicking the Table button in the Tables group on the Create tab. If you need to create a table that is similar in structure to an existing one, simply copy and paste the exist- ing table to create a new one. When you paste the table, Access gives you the option of naming the table and of specifying whether you want the new table to have the existing table’s structure or both its structure and its data.

Creating databases and tables manually 67 For some kinds of tables, Access provides Quick Start fields that you can use to add com- mon sets of fields or kinds of fields to a table.

The Quick Start options take the work out of defining these fields and can be very useful when you know exactly what type of field you need.

In this exercise, you’ll create a blank database, enter information in the first record of its default table, assign field names, add another record, and save and close the table. Then you’ll copy that table to create a second one. Finally, you’ll create a new table and experi- ment with Quick Start fields. Close any open databases, display the New page of the Backstage view, and then follow the steps. Then click the Browse button, navigate to the Chapter02 practice file folder, and click OK.

TIP Remember, you can’t create a blank database without saving it. If you don’t pro- vide a file name and location, Access saves the file with the name Database followed by a sequential number in the default location your Documents folder, unless you have changed it.

Let’s enter data in the first record. The value 1 appears in the ID field, the name of the second column has changed to Fieldl, and the Click to Add label has moved to the third column.

TIP Clicking the record selector is necessary only after you enter the first value in a new table. This action sets the ID field value to 1. Press Tab after each entry. Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables Bishop E.

TIP Don’t be concerned if your screen does not look exactly like ours. In this graphic, we’ve scrolled the page and adjusted the widths of the columns to display all the fields.

For information about adjusting columns, see “Manipulating table columns and rows” later in this chapter. Before we move to the next record, let’s make the field names more useful. TIP Field names can include spaces, but the spaces can affect how queries have to be constructed, so it is best not to include them. Creating databases and tables manually 69 10 Add another record containing the following field values to the table, pressing Tab to move from field to field: 11 12 13 FirstName John LastName Yokim Street 43 rue St.

At the right end of the tab bar, click the Close button. When Access asks whether you want to save the design of the table, click Yes to open the Save As dialog box. TIP Clicking No will delete the new table and its data from the database. All Access Obje.. Tables H Customers The database now contains one table. You can delete a table by right-clicking it, clicking Delete, and then con- firming the deletion in the message box that appears. You can also delete a table by selecting it in the Navigation pane and then clicking the Delete button in the Records group on the Home tab, or by pressing the Delete key.

In the Navigation pane, click the Customers table to select it. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the Copy button. Then click the Paste button to open the Paste Table As dialog box. In the Table Name box, enter Employees. In the Paste Options area, click Structure Only to capture the fields from the Customers table but not the customer records.

Then click OK to create the table and add it to the Tables group in the Navigation pane. TIP You can also use the Copy and Paste commands to append the information in the selected table to another existing table. Double-click Employees to open it in Datasheet view so that you can view its fields.

Then close the table again. This is because Access has automatically assigned this default value to this field. For information about de- fault values, see “Allowing only values in lists” in Chapter 6, “Maintain data integrity. Then scroll to the bottom of the gallery. In our practice databases, we use the field name Country. However, you might want to use the more explicit Country Region field name if the tables you create will store in- ternational addresses.

If you’re capturing the same information in multiple places, that is a sure sign that you need to analyze the data and figure out a way to put the duplicated information in a separate table. For example, an Orders table should not include information about the customer plac- ing each order, for two significant reasons. First, if the same customer orders more than once, all his or her information has to be repeated for each order, which inflates the size of the Orders table and the database.

Second, if the customer moves, his or her address will need to be updated in the record for every order placed. The way to avoid this type of problem is to put customer information in a Customers table and assign each customer a unique identifier, such as a sequential number or unique string of letters, in the primary key field.

Then in the Orders table, you can identify the customer by the unique ID. If you need to know the name and address of the customer who placed a particular order, you can have Access use the unique ID to look up that information in the Customers table. The process of ensuring that a set of information is stored in only one place is called normalization. This process tests a database for compliance with a set of normalization rules that ask questions such as “If I know the information in the primary key field of a record, can I retrieve information from one and only one record?

A detailed discussion of normalization processes is beyond the scope of this book. For more information, see Access Help, or search for Database design basics on the Office website. Creating databases and tables manually 73 nipulating table columns and rows In Chapter 1, “Explore Microsoft Access ,” we showed you how to quickly adjust the width of table columns to efficiently display their data.

In addition to adjusting column width, sometimes you might want to rearrange a table’s columns to get a better view of the data. For example, if you want to look up a phone number but the names and phone numbers are several columns apart, you will have to scroll the table to get the information you need.

You might want to rearrange or hide a few columns to be able to simultaneously view all the fields you are interested in. You can manipulate the columns and rows of an Access table without affecting the under- lying data in any way. You can size rows and size, hide, move, and freeze columns. You can save your table formatting so that the table will look the same the next time you open it, or you can discard your changes without saving them.

In this exercise, you’ll open a table and manipulate its columns and rows. If necessary, open the database. Then follow the steps. TIP This technique is particularly useful in a large table in which you can’t easily determine the length of a field’s longest entry.

Now let’s adjust the height of the table’s rows. Row Height? Row Height: In the Row Height dialog box, select the Standard Height check box, and then click OK to reset the height of the rows to the default setting. Next let’s experiment with hiding columns. Click anywhere in the FirstName column. Then in the Records group, click the More button, and click Hide Fields. You can select adjacent columns by clicking the field name of the first one, holding down the Shift key, and then clicking the field name of the last one.

The two columns and any columns in between are selected. To restore the hidden column, in the Records group, click the More button, and then click Unhide Fields to open the Unhide Columns dialog box. TIP If you want to hide several columns that are not adjacent, display the Unhide Columns dialog box and clear their check boxes. Let’s freeze the first three columns so that they remain in view as you scroll the table. With these three columns selected, click the More button in the Records group, and then click Freeze Fields.

TIP The commands to hide, unhide, freeze, and unfreeze columns are also available from the shortcut menu that appears when you right-click a field name. Suppose we want to always display the customer’s phone number next to his or her name. Let’s move the Phone column. Then drag the field to the left, releasing the mouse button when the thick black line appears to the right of the LastName field.

If a message box appears, warning you that this action will clear the Clipboard, click Yes. Refining table structure Although you can create the structure of a database in Datasheet view, some structural refinements can be carried out only in Design view. When you are familiar with tables, you might even want to create your tables from scratch in Design view, where you have more control over the fields.

You can open a new table in Design view by clicking the Table Design button in the Tables group on the Create tab. When you display an existing table in Design view, the page shows the underlying structure of the table. Refining table structure 77 HOME if. The table design page consists of two parts: a field definition grid and a field properties area.

Click any field selector to select the entire field. You can then insert a row above the selected one, delete the row thereby deleting the field , or drag the row up or down to reposition its field in the table.

The field selector also identifies the primary key field of the table by displaying the Primary Key icon a key with a right-pointing arrow. TIP If you don’t want a table to have a primary key for example, if none of the fields will contain a unique value for every record , select the field designated as the pri- mary key, and on the Design tool tab, in the Tools group, click the Primary Key button to turn it off.

If you want to designate a different field as the primary key, select the new field, and click the Primary Key button to turn it on. You don’t have to remove the primary key from the current field first; it will happen automatically.

You can edit the names by using regular text-editing techniques. You can add a new field by entering its name in the first empty cell in this column. By default, the ID field in a new table is assigned the AutoNumber data type, and if you add a new field in Design view, it is assigned the Short Text data type.

If you add a new field in Datasheet view, it is assigned the data type that most closely corresponds with the kind of data you enter in the field. With the exception of fields with the OLE Object and Attachment data types, you can change the type of any field by clicking its Data Type entry, clicking the arrow that appears, and clicking a new data type in the list. Clicking an entry in the Data Type column displays a list of the available data types.

The Field Properties area in the bottom part of the table design page displays the proper- ties of the field selected in the top part. Different properties are associated with different data types. They determine attributes such as the number of characters allowed in a field, the value inserted if the user doesn’t enter anything, and whether an entry is required.

Properties can also assess whether an entry is valid and can force the user to select from a list of values rather than entering them manually with the inherent risk of errors. Refining table structure 79 All fields, no matter what their data type, can be assigned a Caption property that appears in place of the field name in tables or in other database objects.

For example, you might want to use captions to display spaces in the names of fields, such as First Name for the FirstName field. In this exercise, you’ll open a table in Design view, add and delete fields, change a data type, set field sizes, and add a caption. This table was created by copying the Customers table. Let’s make a few changes to the fields. Then click the Data Type cell, which indicates that the default Short Text data type is assigned to the new field. Press F1 for help on data types.

The Field Properties area shows the properties you can set for the Short Text data type. Now let’s change some of the properties for the PostalCode field. In the box to the right of Field Size, double-click , and enter 10 to limit the entries in this field to 10 characters. If you make a change to a field property that might cause data to be lost for example, if you make the Field Size property smaller than one of the field’s existing values , Access warns you of this problem when you attempt to save the table.

For more information, see Chapter 6, “Maintain data integrity. If you don’t enter a caption, the field name is used as the label. Press F1 for help on captions. You have changed the Field Size and Caption properties of the State field. Notice that in the top part of the design page, the entry in the Field Name column remains State.

Then switch to Datasheet view. When Access tells you that you must save the table before leaving Design view, click Yes to save the table. If necessary, widen the State field, and notice that in this view, the field name is replaced by the State or Region caption property. While the table is displayed in Datasheet view, let’s add another field. Click the LastName field name.

TIP You can also click the Click To Add label to the right of the last field in the field name row, and then in the list that appears, click the data type you want. Then on the Fields tool tab, in the Properties group, click in the Field Size box to select it, enter 50, and press the Enter key. Defining relationships between tables In Access, a relationship is an association that links the primary key field in one table to a field that contains the same information in another table.

The field in the other table is called the foreign key. For example, if customer accounts are assigned to specific sales employees, you can establish a relationship by linking the primary key EmployeelD field in the Employees table with the foreign key EmployeelD field in the Customers table. Each customer account is assigned to only one employee, but each employee can manage many customer accounts, so this type of relationship — the most common — is known as a one-to- many relationship.

Similarly, if every order is associated with a customer, you can establish a relationship by linking the primary key CustomerlD field in the Customers table and foreign key CustomerlD field in the Orders table. Each order is placed by only one customer, but each customer can place many orders.

So again, this is a one-to-many relationship. This type of relationship isn’t commonly used because it is easier to put all the fields in one table. However, you might use two related tables instead of one to break up a table with many fields, or to track informa- tion that applies to only some of the records in the first table.

You might find this relationship in a database that contains Products, Orders, and Order Details tables. The Products table has one record for each product, and each product has a unique ProductlD.

The Orders table has one record for each order placed, and each record in it has a unique OrderlD. However, the Orders table doesn’t specify which products were included in each order; that information is in the Order Details table — the table in the middle that ties the other two tables together. Products and Orders each have a one-to-many relationship with Order Details.

Products and Orders therefore have a many-to- many relationship with each other. In plain language, this means that every prod- uct can appear in many orders, and every order can include many products. The most common way of creating a relationship between two tables is to add the tables to the Relationships page displayed when you click the Relationships button in the Relationships group on the Database Tools tab.

You then drag a field in one table to the common field in the other table and complete the relationship definition in the Edit Relationships dialog box. In this dialog box, you are given the opportunity to impose a restriction called referential integrity on the data, which means that an entry will not be allowed in one table unless it already exists in the other table.

After you have created a relationship, you can delete it by deleting the line connecting the tables on the Relationships page. You can clear all the boxes from the page by clicking the Clear Layout button in the Tools group on the Design tool tab. TIP The coverage of relationships in this topic is deliberately simple. However, relationships are what make relational databases tick, and Access provides a number of fairly complex mechanisms to ensure the integrity of the data on either end of the relationship.

Some of these mechanisms are covered in Chapter 6, “Maintain data integrity. Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables TIP Access web apps don’t use the Relationships page to create and manage relationships. Instead, they use fields set to the Lookup data type. For information about this data type, see “Allowing only values in other tables” in Chapter 6, “Maintain data integrity.

Then you’ll test the referential integrity of one of the relationships. Before we add fields to this table, let’s save it. Repeat this step to create a second field that has the Number data type. Each order in the Orders table will be placed by one customer and will be handled by one employee. Let’s create relationships between the Orders table and the Customers and Employees tables so that we don’t create records for orders from customers who don’t exist or that seem to have been handled by employees who don’t exist.

TIP You cannot create a relationship for an open table. To indicate that you want to create a relationship for the selected Customers table, click Add.

Then double-click Orders, and click Close. Then on the Relationships page, notice that the CustomerlD field appears in the field lists of both tables. Chapter 2 Create databases and simple tables In the Customers field list, click CustomerlD, and drag it down and over CustomerlD in the Orders field list.

Release the mouse button to open the Edit Relationships dialog box. Select the Enforce Referential Integrity check box, and then click Create. Notice on the Relationships page that a line now connects the two field lists, linking the primary key in the Customers table and the foreign key in the Orders table.

Defining relationships between tables 87 Let’s add the Employees table to the Relationships page so that we can create a relationship that links that table to the Orders table. Then in the Show Table dialog box, double-click the Employees table, and click Close. TIP You can also add tables by dragging them from the Tables group of the Naviga- tion pane to the Relationships page. Now let’s test the relationships.

Then in the CustomerlD field of the first record, change the 0 value to 11, and click below the record to complete it. Access displays a message box telling you that you cannot add the new record to the table. Microsoft Access You cannot add or change a record because a related record is required in table ‘Customers’.

Help Was this information helpful? The value in the CustomerlD field in the Orders table must match a value in the primary key CustomerlD field in the Customer table. Then change the value to 1. Access accepts the record because there is a record with the value 1 in the primary key CustomerlD field of the Customers table and a record with the value 1 in the primary key EmployeelD field of the Employees table.

You can also set the data type and certain properties. Caution: changing some properties might affect the data.

A database that contains the day-to-day records of an active company is useful only if it is kept current and if the information stored in it can be found quickly. Entering, editing, and retrieving information from tables in Datasheet view is fairly easy for someone who is famil- iar with Access. But for occasional users or people who are not familiar with Access, these tasks might be tedious and inefficient and leave far too much room for error, especially if details of complex transactions have to be entered into several related tables.

The solution to this problem is to create and use forms. A form is an organized and formatted view of some or all of the fields from one or more tables. Forms work interactively with the tables in a database. You use controls in the form to enter new information, to edit or remove existing information, or to locate information. Think of a text box control as a little window through which you can insert data into the corre- sponding field of the related table or view information that is already in that field.

TIP An Access form can also include a variety of other controls that transform the form into something very much like a Windows dialog box or wizard page. For information, see “Allowing only values in lists” in Chapter 6, “Maintain data integrity. You’ll also modify forms to suit your needs by changing their appearance and the arrange- ment of their controls.

This method creates a simple form that uses all the fields in the table. This method enables you to choose which of the table’s fields you want to use in the form. For information about manually creating forms in Design view, see “Adding controls” in Chapter 8, “Create custom forms.

You will usually want to start the process of creating forms that are based on tables by using the Form tool or a wizard — not because the manual process is especially difficult, but because it is simply more efficient to have the tool or a wizard create the basic form for you and then refine that form manually.

Chapter 3 Create simple forms In this exercise, you’ll use the Form tool to create a form based on a table. You will then enter a couple of records by using the new form and refresh the table to reflect the new entries.

The practice file for this exercise contains tables that look similar to those in the practice file for Chapter 1. However, to simplify the steps, we have removed the relationships between the tables. Be sure to use the practice database for this chapter rather than continuing on with the database from an earlier chapter. Open the database, and if you want, save your own version to avoid overwriting the original.

Elm Dr. TIP The CustomerlD field contains a unique identifier for each customer and is the table’s primary key field. In this case, the unique identifier is not an autogenerated number, but the first three letters of the customer’s last name combined with the first two letters of his or her first name.

For more information about this type of primary key, see “Allowing only values in other tables” in Chapter 6, “Maintain data integrity. Creating forms by using the Form tool 93 TIP You don’t have to open a table to create a form based on it. You can simply click the table in the Navigation pane to select it and then click the Form button in the Forms group on the Create tab. But it is sometimes useful to have the table open be- hind the form so that you can verify the form contents against the table contents.

We have closed the Navigation pane to show more of the form. The Form tool has configured all the field names in the table as label controls and all the fields as text box controls. In the header at the top of the form, the name of the table appears as a title, and the form icon appears to the left of the title as a place- holder for a logo. Because the form is displayed in Layout view, the Design, Arrange, and Format tool tabs appear on the ribbon so that you can modify selected controls. In general, if a web page you are looking for is not found, then you can go to this site to see if they have it for you.

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