(PDF) Indexes The Chicago Manual of Style 15th edition | Wil Winston –
For sub- subentries, see Danjuma Danladi. Whichever form is used in the text should /120.txt used in the index as well. This cookie is installed by Google Analytics. Traditionally, all main headings in an index were capital- ized; Chicago recommends the practice only where the subentries are so numerous that capitalized main chicagoo make for easier navigation. The ссылка на продолжение paragraphs merely summarize conventions of punctuation in an index.
Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed. A | EndNote
Many of the guidelines apply equally to electronic editjon, which often require indexes see 1. Rosa San Segundo. Philippe Cousson. Steve Pepper.
Topic Maps is an international standard technology for describing knowledge structures and using them to improve the findability of information. It is based on a formal model that subsumes chicago manual of style 15th edition pdf download of oof finding aids such as indexes, glossaries, and thesauri, and extends them to cater for the additional complexities of digital information.
Topic Maps is increasingly used in Enterprise Information Integration, Knowledge Management, e-Learning, and Digital Libraries, and as the foundation for web-based information delivery solutions. This entry provides a comprehensive treatment of the core concepts, as well as describing the background and current ov of the standard and its relationship to traditional knowledge organization techniques.
Topic Maps is a new ISO standard for describing knowledge structures and associating themwith information resources. As such it constitutes an enabling technology for knowledge stylw. While it is possible to represent immensely complex structures using topic maps, the basic concepts of the model — Topics, Associations, and Occurrences TAO — are easily grasped. This paper provides a non-technical introduction to these and other concepts the IFS and BUTS of topicmapsrelating them to things that are 15hh to all of us from the realms of publishing and information management, and attempting to convey some idea of the uses to which topicmaps will be put in the future.
Rada Mihalcea. The automatic generation of back-of-the book indexes seems to be out of sight of the Information Retrieval and Natural Language Processing communities, although the increasingly large number of books available in electronic format, as well as recent advances in keyphrase extraction, vownload motivate an increased interest in this topic. Patricia Phalen. Hazel K Bell. Volker Hess. David Carson Berry. This is the largest Schenkerian reference work published to date; it contains entries principal, secondary representing the work of authors.
It is organized topically: fifteen broad groupings encompass seventy topical headings, many of which are divided and subdivided again, resulting in a total of headings under which entries are collected. Harald SackClemens Beckstein. Nam Thanh. Anatoly Ulyanov. Edeama Onwuchekwa. Victoria Francu.
Shamoro Temam. Hamilton D Walker. Sebastian Garcia. Marivic Sumagaysay. Roohullah Nawandish. Laurent Audibert. Dagobert Soergel. Douglas Bruster. Clemens BecksteinHarald Sack. Sheikh Shaharul. Graham Chicago manual of style 15th edition pdf downloadPeter CharukA. Reima Al-Jarf. Danjuma Danladi. Thomas Dousa. Farah Wael. Sergey Lobachev. Log in with Facebook Log in with Google. По этому сообщению me on this 155th.
Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email styyle a reset link. Need an account? Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. Indexes The Chicago Manual of Style 15th edition. Wil Winston. Related Papers. The Hague UDC as a non-disciplinary classification system for a high-school library.
Topic Maps. Creating a testbed for the evaluation of automatically generated back-of-the-book indexes. American Journal of Political Science Using substitutes for full-text news stories in content analysis: Which text is best? From herbals to Hotbot: a history of journal indexing.
Many of the guidelines apply equally to electronic works, which often re- quire indexes see 1. The ideal indexer sees the work as a whole, understands the emphasis of the various parts and their relation to the whole, and knows—or guesses—what readers of the particular ov are likely to look for and what edituon they will think of.
The indexer should be widely read, scrupulous in handling of detail, analytically minded, well acquainted with publishing practices, and capable of meeting almost im- styld deadlines. Although authors know better than anyone else their subject matter and the chicago manual of style 15th edition pdf download to whom the work is addressed, not all can look at their work through the eyes of a potential reader.
Some authors produce ex- cellent indexes. Others would do better to enlist the aid of a professional indexer. Most book indexes have to be made between the time page proof downlozd issued and the time it is returned to the typesetter— usually about four weeks.
For journals that publish a vol- ume index, the indexer may have several months to prepare a preliminary index, adding entries as new issues of the journal arrive. Computers and special indexing software can stream- line the indexing process and substantially reduce the time required. No computer can editino a good index on its own, however; human inter- vention is always required.
But it cannot chicago manual of style 15th edition pdf download between a term and a concept or between a relevant dosnload an irrelevant statement. At best it can generate a concordance—a simple list of major words that appear in a document. Without human in- tervention, a computer cannot create appropriate subentries or cross- references. Anyone likely to prepare a number of indexes should acquire that work. For further reference, see Hans H. Fetters, Handbook of Indexing Techniques bibliog.
Kinds of Indexes and Components of an Index A single index, including subjects and names of persons, is usually the easiest to use. Further, cross- referencing between subjects and persons is much simpler in a single in- dex. If two or more indexes must appear перейти на страницу one work, they should be vi- sually distinct so that users chiago immediately downloax they are.
The running heads should carry the titles of each index. Chicago manual of style 15th edition pdf download entry consists of a heading or main headinglocators see The main heading of an index entry is normally a noun or noun phrase—the name of a person, a place, an object, or an abstraction.
An adjective alone should never constitute a heading; it should always be paired with a noun to form a noun phrase. For cnicago, see A subentry, like an entry, consists of a heading usually referred to as a subheadingpage references, and, rarely, chjcago references.
Other subheadings form msnual or units within the larger category of the heading, as in the second ex- ample. Both kinds can be used within one index. See also For sub- subentries, see Indexes in chicago manual of style 15th edition pdf download sciences often avoid initial rownload be- cause the distinction between capitalized and lowercased terms in the text may be crucial.
Traditionally, all main headings in an index were capital- ized; Mannual recommends the practice only where the subentries are so numerous that capitalized main headings make nokia 909 upgrade to windows 10 free download easier navigation.
Subentries are always lowercased unless, as in the second example in In a printed work, locators are usually page numbers, though they can also be paragraph numbers as in chicago manual of style 15th edition pdf download manualsection numbers, or the like. Scattered references to a subject over several pages or sections are usually indicated by separate locators 34, 35, 36; 8.
The term passim may be used to indicate scattered references over a number of not necessarily se- quential pages or sections chiccago. Publishers vary in their preferences for the form of in- clusive numbers also known as continuing numbers. Although the sim- plest and most foolproof system is to give the full form of numbers every- editipn chicago manual of style 15th edition pdf download. The system is followed in all examples in this chapter.
Whichever 15tth is used in the text should be used in the index as well.
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If more than a handful of sub-subentries are needed in an index, the indented format rather than the run-in type should be chosen see A very few, however, can be accommodated in a run-in index or, better, avoided by repeating a keyword see example A.
Em dashes are not used where only one level of subentry is needed. In an indented index, sub-subentries are best run in see example A below. If, in a particular index, running them in makes the index hard to use, they have to be indented more deeply than the subentries example B. When the second is used, runover lines have to be indented three ems, and some very short lines appear. An index is a tool for one particular work.
If British spelling has been used throughout the text, it must be used in the index. Shakspere in the text calls for Shakspere in the index. Older geographical terms should not be altered to their present form Constantinople, Istanbul; Siam, Thailand; etc. Any terms italicized or en- closed in quotation marks in the text should be treated similarly in the index. If inclusive numbers are given in full in the text see The wording for all entries should be concise and logical.
If, for example, the author of a philosophical work uses essence to mean being, the main entry should be under essence, possibly with a cross- reference from being. If the terms are used interchangeably, the indexer must choose one; in this case a cross-reference is imperative. Common sense is the best guide. For journals, terms may have been established in advance, either by a predetermined list of keywords within the discipline or by previous journal indexes.
Although proper names are an important element in most indexes, there are times when they should be ignored. The MG sports car, on the other hand, should be indexed, given the subject of the work. Similarly, names or terms that occur in pass- ing references and scene-setting elements that are not essential to the theme of a work need not be indexed. Occasional vanity entries are not forbidden.
Proper Names and Variants When names appear in the text in more than one form, or in an incomplete form, the indexer must decide which form to use for the main entry and which for the cross-reference if any and oc- casionally must furnish information not given in the text.
Few indexes need to provide the kind of detail found in biographical or geographical dictionaries, though reference works of that kind will help in decision making. Personal names should be indexed as they have become widely known.
Fisher or Cervantes, the full form of the name should appear in the index. Persons who have used pseudonyms or other professional names are usually listed under their real names. If the pseudonym has be- come a household word, however, it should be used as the main entry, often with the real name in parentheses; a cross-reference is seldom nec- essary. Persons with the same name should be dis- tinguished by a middle initial if either has one or by a parenthetical tag.
Married women who are known both by their birth names and by their married names should be indexed by their birth names unless the married name is the more familiar. Sutherland, Joan Mrs. Richard Bonynge Marinoff, Fania Mrs. Identifying tags may be omitted or ex- panded as appropriate in a particular work.
Princes and princesses are usually indexed under their given names. Dukes, earls, and the like are indexed under the title. Sir and Dame, while easier to cope with, are also unnecessary in most in- dexes. If used, they are ignored in alphabetizing. Churchill, Winston [or Churchill, Sir Winston] Hess, Myra [or Hess, Dame Myra] Thatcher, Margaret [even if referred to as Lady Thatcher in text] But in a work dealing with the nobility, or a historical work such as The Lisle Letters University of Chicago Press, , from which the following examples are taken, titles may be an appropriate or needed element in in- dex entries.
The last two examples illustrate distinctions for which expert advice may be needed. Like titles of nobility, such abbreviations as Rev. They are ignored in alphabetizing. Jaki, Rev. Stanley S. Manniere, Msgr. Charles L. George E. Academic titles such as Professor and Doctor, used before a name, are not retained in indexing, nor are abbreviations of degrees such as PhD or MD.
King, Martin Luther, Jr. Stevenson, Adlai E. Saints are indexed under their given names unless another name is equally well or better known.
Catherine of Siena, Saint Aquinas. Even if only a shortened form of a name or an epithet is used in the text, the index should give the full form. When the same name is used of more than one entity, identifying tags should be provided. Organizations that are widely known under their abbreviations should be indexed and alphabetized according to the abbreviations. Parenthetical glosses, cross-references, or both should be added if the abbreviations, however familiar to the indexer, may not be known to all readers of the particular work.
Lesser-known organizations are better indexed under the full name, with a cross-reference from the ab- breviation if it is used frequently in the work. Titles of newspapers, books, journals, stories, po- ems, artwork, musical compositions, and such should be treated typo- graphically as they appear in text—whether italicized, set in roman and enclosed in quotation marks, or simply capitalized see 8.
English-language newspapers should be indexed as they are generally known, whether or not the city of publication appears on the masthead.
The name is italicized, as in text, and The is omitted. Any article Le, Die, etc. Magazines and journals are indexed in the same way as news- papers. The is omitted in English-language publications, but the article is included, following the name, in foreign ones. A published work, a musical composition, or a piece of art is usually indexed both as a main entry and as a subentry under its creator. This de- vice is best employed when many works as well as many topics are listed.
Separate main entries may also be included for the works. In titles beginning with The, A, or An, the article is traditionally placed at the end of the title, fol- lowing a comma, when the title forms a main heading. When such a title occurs as a subheading, it appears in its normal position in a run-in index, where inversion would be clumsy and unnecessary, but is inverted in an indented index for easier alphabetic scanning.
An article should be omitted, however, only if the full title appears elsewhere in the work whether in text, notes, or bibliography. They follow the rest of the title in main headings but remain, as in English titles, in their normal position in run-in subentries see Articles are ignored in alphabetizing. French un and une, for example, and German ein and eine can mean one as well as a. Inversion is customary but not mandatory, whereas faulty inversion will confuse or irritate the user and embarrass the publisher.
Prepositions beginning a title always re- main in their original position and are never dropped, whether in English or foreign titles. Alphabetizing Or the article may simply be omitted. The two principal modes of alphabetizing—or sorting—in- dexes are the letter-by-letter and the word-by-word systems.
Dictionaries are arranged letter by letter, library catalogs word by word. Chicago, most university presses, and many other publishers have traditionally preferred the letter-by-letter system but will normally not impose it on a well-prepared index that has been arranged word by word.
In an index including many open compounds starting with the same word, the word-by-word system may be easier for users. Both systems have their advantages and disadvantages, and few users are con- fused by either. For a fuller discussion, consult Nancy Mulvany, Indexing Books bib- liog. Word spaces and all other punctuation marks are ig- nored. Both open and hyphenated compounds such as New York or self- pity are treated as single words.
The order of precedence is one word, word followed by a parenthesis, and word followed by a comma, number, or let- ters. The order of precedence is one word, word followed by a parenthesis, word followed by a comma, word followed by a space, and word followed by a comma, number, or letters.
In both systems a parenthesis or comma inter- rupts the alphabetizing, and other punctuation marks hyphens, slashes, quotation marks, periods, etc. When a person, a place, and a thing have the same name, they are arranged in normal alphabetical order. If Amy London and Carolyn Hoe were to appear in the same index as illustrated above, adjustments in the other entries would be needed. Initials used in place of a given name come before any spelled-out name beginning with the same letter.
Oppenheimer, J. Robert Oppenheimer, K. Oppenheimer, James N. Oppenheimer, Keven S. Acronyms, initialisms, and most abbreviations are alpha- betized as they appear, not according to their spelled-out versions, and are interspersed alphabetically among entries.
See Johnson, Lyndon B. Numerals, when isolated entries, are alphabetized as though spelled out. When two or more similar headings with nu- merals occur together, they are ordered numerically, regardless of how they would be spelled out. Words beginning with or including accented letters are al- phabetized as though they were unaccented. The alphabetizing practices of other languages are not relevant in such in- stances.
Introductory articles, prepositions, and conjunctions are disregarded in alphabetizing subentries, whether the subentries are run in or indented. Churchill, Winston: as anti-Fascist, ; on Curzon line, , ; and de Gaulle, n4 Especially in indented style, where alphabetizing functions more visually, such introductory words should be used only where needed for clarity.
The subheadings could be edited as follows. Churchill, Winston anti-Fascism of, Curzon line, views on, , de Gaulle, relations with, n4 Occasional subentries demand numerical order even if others in the same index but not the same entry are alphabetized.
Cross-references are often advisable see Note the wide variations in the following list of actual names arranged alphabet- ically as they might appear in an index. See also 8. A cross-reference may be useful if Saint and St. Laurent, Louis Stephen fore ign personal names Modern Arabic names consisting of one or more given names followed by a surname present no problem. If the name is preceded in text by a term of respect U, Daw, etc.
Chinese names should be indexed as spelled in the work, whether in the pinyin or the Wade-Giles system. Since the family name precedes the given name in Chinese usage, names are not inverted in the index, and no comma is used. Li Bo [pinyin; alphabetize under L] Mao Tse-tung [Wade-Giles; alphabetize under M] Persons of Chinese ancestry or origin who have adopted the Western prac- tice of giving the family name last are indexed with inversion and a comma.
Kung, H. Tsou, Tang In English con- texts, however, such names are usually inverted; in an index they are there- fore reinverted, with a comma added. Modern Indian names generally appear with the family name last and are indexed accordingly.
As with all names, the personal preference of the individual as well as usage should be observed. Narayan, R. Usage varies. Some Indonesians especially Javanese use only a single, given name. In Japanese usage the family name precedes the given name; names are therefore not inverted in the index, and no comma is used. If the name is westernized, as it often is by authors writing in En- glish, the family name comes last.
The Portuguese, unlike the Spanish see below , index surnames by the last element. Where both Portuguese and Spanish names appear in the same context, cross-references may be necessary. Vasconcellos, J. Leite de Martins, Luciana de Lima The two names are sometimes joined by y and.
Cross-references will often be needed, especially if the person is generally known under the second ele- ment or if the indexer is uncertain where to place the main entry. Webster is a good guide for persons listed there. Where many Spanish names ap- pear, an indexer not conversant with Spanish or Latin American culture should seek help.
If it is not clear from the text and the name is not in Webster, a cross-reference will be needed. Seek expert help. Since Vietnamese persons are usually referred to by the last part of their given names Premier Diem, General Giap , they are best indexed under that form. Throughout Asia, many names derive from Arabic, Chinese, the European languages, and other languages, regardless of where the bearers of the names were born.
In the Philippines, for ex- ample, names follow a Western order, giving precedence to the family name, though the names themselves may be derived from local lan- guages.
In some parts of Asia, titles denoting status form part of a name as it appears in written work and must be dealt with appropriately. When the standard reference works do not supply an answer, query the author. In indexing organizations whose names begin with the which would be lowercase in running text , the article is omitted. University of Chicago Sutherland Group An organization widely known by the family name, however, should be indexed under that name.
In both instances, cross-references may be appropriate. See J. Penney Company, Inc. Saphir, Kurt. See Kurt Saphir Pianos, Inc. Shedd Aquarium. See also Morgan, Junius S. Morgan, Junius S. Proper names of moun- tains, lakes, and so forth that begin with a generic name are usually in- verted and alphabetized under the nongeneric name.
Names of places beginning with El, Le, La, and such, whether in English- or non-English-speaking countries, are alphabetized according to the article.
Like personal names, they are alphabetized as they appear. Note that French hyphenates place-names with Saint. Saint-Cloud in France Ste. Louis Saint-Luc St. Vincent Island St. Because St. Paul, St. Petersburg, St. Louis, and the like, Chicago no longer insists on spelling it out in such place-names. Cross-references may be appropriate e. See St. Punctuation: A Summary The following paragraphs merely summarize conventions of punctuation in an index.
See further examples throughout this chapter. In both run-in and indented indexes, when a main heading is fol- lowed immediately by locators usually page or paragraph numbers; see Commas appear between locators. Sabba da Castiglione, Monsignor, , ; against cosmetics, , , lighthouses, early history of, In an indented index, no punctuation is used after the main entry.
A colon is also used in a cross- reference to a subentry. When subentries or sub-subentries are run in, they are sepa- rated by semicolons.
Cross-references, if more than one, are also sepa- rated by semicolons. See also Brahe, Tycho; comets; Flamsteed, John In a run-in index a period is used only before See, See also, or See under. In an indented index a period is used only before See. When a see reference in parentheses follows a subentry in either a run-in or an in- dented index, no period is used.
For use of the em dash in run-in indexes that require occasional sub-subentries, see example B in The en dash is used for page ranges and all other inclusive loca- tors e. See 6. The Mechanics of Indexing before inde xing begins: tools and dec isions The indexer must have in hand a clean and complete set of proofs before beginning to index. For a printed work, page proofs are required; for an electronic work, the indexer typically requires a printout showing both content and locators.
For a journal vol- ume index, the style is likely to be well established, and the indexer must follow that style. If the publisher requests an index of a particular length, the indexer should allow more than the normal time for editing see Less complicated ones are becoming available check with your publisher or the American Society of Indexers. But an index can be prepared with patience and an ordinary word processor.
Before beginning to type—typing is used here to mean keyboarding on a computer as well as on a typewriter see Avoid the tab; just let the runover lines wrap normally. Use your regular software to create italics and boldface, if needed. For details, consult Nancy Mulvany, Indexing Books bibliog. The procedures described in the fol- lowing sections can be adapted to the index-card method. Authors who are not preparing their own indexes may compile a list of important terms for the indexer, but doing much more is likely to cause duplication or back- tracking.
The entire text of a book or journal ar- ticle, including most notes see next paragraph , should be indexed. Much of the front matter, however, is not indexable—title page, dedication, epigraphs, lists of illustrations and tables, and acknowledgments. A pref- ace, or a foreword by someone other than the author of the work, may be indexed if it concerns the subject of the work and not simply how the work came to be written.
A true introduction, whether in the front matter or, more commonly, in the body of the work, is always indexed for introduc- tion versus preface, see 1.
Book appendixes should be indexed if they contain information that supplements the text, but not if they merely re- produce documents that are discussed in the text the full text of a treaty, for example, or a questionnaire. Appendixes to journal articles are in- dexed as part of the articles. Glossaries, bibliographies, and other such lists are not indexed. Notes, whether footnotes or endnotes, should be indexed if they continue or amplify discussion in the text substantive notes.
Notes that merely document statements in the text reference notes need not be in- dexed if the source is clearly implied in the text itself. But if a note docu- ments an otherwise unattributed statement or idea discussed in the text, the author of that statement or idea should indeed be indexed.
And in works that contain no bibliography, reference notes—at least those giving full details—should be carefully indexed. Endnotes in printed works are referred to by page, the let- ter n for note , and—extremely important—the note number, with no in- ternal space n Nonconsecutive notes on the same page are treated separately n14, n16, n Occa- sionally, when reference to a late note in one chapter of a book is followed by reference to an early note in the next, nonchronological order will re- sult n19, n2.
To avoid the appearance of error, the chapter num- ber may be added in parentheses after the lower note number. Footnotes in a printed work are generally referred to in the same way as endnotes. When a footnote is the only one on the page, however, the note number or symbol, if numbers are not used may be omitted n. Note numbers should never be omitted when several notes appear on the same page. But if the text and the footnote materials are unrelated, both text and note should be cited , n, , n Referring to a suc- cession of notes, however, may require inclusive page numbers, e.
Documentation given as parenthetical author- date citations in text is not normally indexed unless the citation docu- ments an otherwise unattributed statement in the text see Any author discussed in text should be indexed.
Preparing an author index, though some- what mechanical, takes more time than often supposed. Since most au- thors are cited in text by last name and date only, full names must be sought in the reference list.
Occasional discrepancies between text and reference list, not caught in editing, have to be sorted out or queried. Dinero, cited on page , the same person as Lauren Dinero, dis- cussed on page ? If so, should she be indexed as Dinero, Lauren W.? Where a work by two or more authors is cited in text, the indexer must determine whether each author named re- quires a separate entry.
Should Jones, Smith, and Black share one in- dex entry, or should three entries appear? And what about Jones et al.? Chi- cago recommends the following procedure: Make separate entries for each author whose name appears in text. Do not index those unfortunates whose names are concealed under et al. Illustrative matter may be indexed if it is of particular importance to the discussion, especially when such items are not listed in or after the table of contents.
References to illustrations may be set in italics or boldface, if preferred ; a headnote should then be inserted at the beginning of the index see Add an appropriate headnote e. Experienced indexers usually begin by perusing the table of contents and scanning the rest of the proofs to establish what is in the work and where. It is normally done by hand-marking a set of proofs. Most indexers pre- fer to mark one section or chapter or journal issue at a time and to type and alphabetize the marked terms in that section before going on to the next section.
The notes belonging to the section, even if endnotes, should be checked and, if necessary, indexed at the same time see The number of terms to mark on any one printed page obviously depends on the kind of work being indexed. If the publisher has budgeted for a strictly limited number of pages, the indexer should work accordingly. Remember that it is always easier to drop entries than to add them; err on the side of inclusiveness. You decide that the whole section pp.
On the marked proofs, a colon separates a proposed principal heading from a proposed subhead- ing. Going down the page, you underline Bliss Perry noting that it is to be inverted—Perry, Bliss—as a heading; similarly for the other personal names. You also underline amateur and professional modifying them to the plural.
You pass by Chicago Symphony Orchestra as tan- gential, but politicians may be considered as a heading. Otherwise you may end up with some headings that are followed by noth- ing but a long string of numbers, which makes for an all but useless index entry.
If a text discussion extends over more than one page, sec- tion, or paragraph, both beginning and ending numbers—which will de- pend on what locator system is being used see While typing, you will probably modify some of the headings and add, delete, or alter subentries and locators.
Af- ter typing each entry, read it carefully against the page proof. Many indexers alphabetize as they type; others let their soft- ware do it, intervening as necessary. If the system chosen proves unsatisfactory for the particular work as the index proceeds, a switch can be made if the publisher agrees.
After typing all the entries, read quickly through the marked-up proofs once again to see whether anything indexable has been omitted. Or you may have missed major items. Now is the time to remedy all omissions. If indexing a book rather than a journal volume, most of which will already have been published , keep track of all such errors and send a list to the publisher who will be very grateful when, or before, sub- mitting the index.
The assembled entries must now be edited to a coherent whole. For jour- nals, the terms may have been established in the indexes for previous vol- umes and should be retained.
You also have to decide whether certain items are best treated as main headings or as subentries under another heading. In a work dealing with schools of various kinds, such terms as kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, and public school should constitute separate entries; in a work in which those terms appear but are not the primary subject matter, they may bet- ter be treated as subentries under school.
An index with relatively few main entries but masses of subentries is unhelpful as a search tool. Further- more, in an indented index an excessively long string of subentries may begin to look like a set of main entries, so that users lose their way alpha- betically.
Promote subentries to main entries and use the alphabet to its best advantage. The extra space needed is a small price to pay for their convenience. These cookies help provide information on metrics the number of visitors, bounce rate, traffic source, etc.
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